There was a time when we humans, used to dream, used to think of something getting true in the coming years that will make the life much more convenient and adorable. Well, the time has gone; we live in an era where most of the thought are possible. Technology is there to make life much easier to live.

Here the Technology considered is  “Mobile Telephony“. A few years ago, mobile phones were meant to be used for making calls, some sort of text messaging and some push-to-talk emails. The time has now changed within period of these 10 years. The world of telephonic connectivity has changed drastically.

The whole world is connected through a simple yet known word ‘Internet‘. Now what makes internet a success is determined by two important factors: Data speed and connectivity.

The majority of the world is deploying the fastest, yet not the best Data Network, 4G LTE. It is the technology that gives a mobile user speed up to 100 Mbps and a stationary user speed up to 1Gbps.

4G LTE is a set of two technologies, TDD-LTE and FDD-LTE, with TDD being the oldest and immature technology between the two. TDD-LTE runs on 2300 MHz band, where as FDD-LTE uses different bands (1800, 2100, 2600, 700,800) to operate.

The fact that TDD-LTE is immature and old as compared to the other, major operators around the globe are adopting FDD-LTE for better coverage and hence better speed & lesser deployment cost.

Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) provides a mechanism for forwarding packets for any network protocol. It was originally developed in the late 1990s to provide faster packet forwarding for IP routers. Since then its capabilities have expanded massively, for example to support service creation (VPNs), traffic engineering, network convergence, and increased resiliency.

MPLS is now the de-facto standard for many carrier and service provider networks and its deployment scenarios continue to grow.

Traditional IP networks are connectionless: when a packet is received, the router determines the next hop using the destination IP address on the packet alongside information from its own forwarding table. The router’s forwarding tables contain information on the network topology, obtained via an IP routing protocol, such as OSPF, IS-IS, BGP, RIP or static configuration, which keeps that information synchronized with changes in the network.

MPLS similarly uses IP addresses, either IPv4 or IPv6, to identify end points and intermediate switches and routers. This makes MPLS networks IP-compatible and easily integrated with traditional IP networks. However, unlike traditional IP, MPLS flows are connection-oriented and packets are routed along pre-configured Label Switched Paths (LSPs).